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Medical device thrombosis and biofouling leading to sepsis cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to reduce the complications that arise from drugs designed to combat these issues, such as anticoagulants that cause bleeding and the overuse of antibiotics that result in antibiotic resistant pathogens.

Using bioengineering strategies, increasingly sophisticated materials can be constructed. Combining physical, chemical and biological surface modification methods, medical devices can be manipulated to interact with, repel or adhere proteins or cells to improve medical device function, create novel diagnostics and medical devices, and both drug and non-drug based avenues for therapies.